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2022 Apr 05

Egypt Heart J



COVID-19 and myocarditis: a review of literature.


Ali M, Shiwani HA, Elfaki MY, Hamid M, Pharithi R, Kamgang R, Egom C BA, Oyono J L E, Egom E E-A
Egypt Heart J. 2022 Apr 05; 74(1):23.
PMID: 35380300.


Myocarditis has been discovered to be a significant complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a condition caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. COVID-19 myocarditis seems to have distinct inflammatory characteristics, which make it unique to other viral etiologies. The incidence of COVID-19 myocarditis is still not clear as a wide range of figures have been quoted in the literature; however, it seems that the risk of developing myocarditis increases with more severe infection. Furthermore, the administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has been associated with the development of myocarditis, particularly after the second dose. COVID-19 myocarditis has a wide variety of presentations, ranging from dyspnea and chest pain to acute heart failure and possibly death. It is important to catch any cases of myocarditis, particularly those presenting with fulminant myocarditis which can be characterized by signs of heart failure and arrythmias. Initial work up for suspected myocarditis should include serial troponins and electrocardiograms. If myocardial damage is detected in these tests, further screening should be carried out. Cardiac magnetic resonance imagining and endomyocardial biopsy are the most useful tests for myocarditis. Treatment for COVID-19 myocarditis is still controversial; however, the use of intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids in combination may be effective, particularly in cases of fulminant myocarditis. Overall, the incidence of COVID-19 myocarditis requires further research, while the use of intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids in conjunction requires large randomized controlled trials to determine their efficacy.