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PLoS One



Multi-modality human phenotyping to examine subjective and objective health afflictions in former professional American-style football players: The In-Person Assessment (IPA) protocol.


Cortez B, Valdivia C, Keating D, Marengi D, Bates T, Brown C, Dairi I, Doyle M, Keske R, Connor A, Grashow R, Tenforde A, Wasfy MM, Weisskopf MG, Speizer F, Zafonte R, Baggish A
PLoS One. 2022; 17(3):e0265737.
PMID: 35358242.


Participation in American-style football (ASF), one of the most popular sports worldwide, has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, prior clinical studies of former ASF players have been limited by reliance on subjective self-reported data, inadequate sample size, or focus on a single disease process in isolation.