Neuropathic pain (NP) is a chronic condition that affects ~ 1% of the general population globally. Several conditions such as chronic diabetes, herpes zoster (HZ), cancer, HIV, stroke, multiple sclerosis, physical compression or damage of nerves and certain surgical procedures can lead to neuropathy and related pain. The condition is difficult to treat with traditional analgesic drugs. Typically, non-traditional analgesics are used in treating pain in this condition such as antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Opioids are useful in some patients, but the risk of addiction and the risk of both short-term and long-term adverse effects make it a low priority drug class in the treatment of NP. In the current review we discuss the pharmacology and pharmaceutical care aspects of various classes of drugs used in the treatment of NP, counselling points for these drug classes, and future prospects in the treatment of NP.