I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2022 Feb 22

Antibiotics (Basel)



Surgical Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Patients of Neonatal and Pediatric Age Undergoing Orthopedic and Hand Surgery: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method Consensus Study.


Opri F, Bianchini S, Nicoletti L, Monaco S, Opri R, Di Pietro M, Carrara E, Rigotti E, Auriti C, Caminiti C, Donà D, Lancella L, Lo Vecchio A, Pizzi S, Principi N, Simonini A, Tesoro S, Venturini E, Villani A, Staiano A, et al.
Antibiotics (Basel). 2022 Feb 22; 11(3).
PMID: 35326754.


Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent a potential complication in any type of surgery and can occur up to one year after the procedure in the case of implant placement. In the field of orthopedic and hand surgery, the rate of SSIs is a relevant issue, considering the need for the placement of synthesis devices and the type of some interventions (e.g., exposed fractures). This work aims to provide guidance on the management of peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for the pediatric and neonatal population undergoing orthopedic and hand surgery in order to standardize the management of patients and to reduce, on the one hand, the risk of SSI and, on the other, the development of antimicrobial resistance. The following scenarios were considered: (1) bloodless fracture reduction; (2) reduction of unexposed fracture and grade I and II exposed fracture; (3) reduction of grade III exposed fracture or traumatic amputation; (4) cruel fracture reduction with percutaneous synthesis; (5) non-traumatic amputation; (6) emergency intact skin trauma surgery and elective surgery without synthetic media placement; (7) elective orthopedic surgery with prosthetic and/or synthetic media placement and spinal surgery; (8) clean elective hand surgery with and without bone involvement, without use of synthetic means; (9) surgery of the hand on an elective basis with bone involvement and/or with use of synthetic means. This manuscript has been made possible by the multidisciplinary contribution of experts belonging to the most important Italian scientific societies and represents, in our opinion, the most complete and up-to-date collection of recommendations regarding the behavior to be adopted in the peri-operative setting in neonatal and pediatric orthopedic and hand surgery. The specific scenarios developed are aimed at guiding the healthcare professional in practice to ensure the better and standardized management of neonatal and pediatric patients, together with an easy consultation.