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Biomed Res Int


Peripheral Purinergic Modulation in Pediatric Orofacial Inflammatory Pain Affects Brainstem Nitroxidergic System: A Translational Research.


Borsani E, Ballini A, Buffoli B, Lo Muzio L, Di Domenico M, Boccellino M, Scacco S, Nocini R, Dibello V, Rezzani R, Cantore S, Rodella L F, Di Cosola M
Biomed Res Int. 2022; 2022:1326885.
PMID: 35309172.


Physiology of orofacial pain pathways embraces primary afferent neurons, pathologic changes in the trigeminal ganglion, brainstem nociceptive neurons, and higher brain function regulating orofacial nociception. The goal of this study was to investigate the nitroxidergic system alteration at brainstem level (spinal trigeminal nucleus), and the role of peripheral P2 purinergic receptors in an experimental mouse model of pediatric inflammatory orofacial pain, to increase knowledge and supply information concerning orofacial pain in children and adolescents, like pediatric dentists and pathologists, as well as oro-maxillo-facial surgeons, may be asked to participate in the treatment of these patients. The experimental animals were treated subcutaneously in the perioral region with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), a P2 receptor antagonist, 30 minutes before formalin injection. The pain-related behavior and the nitroxidergic system alterations in the spinal trigeminal nucleus using immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis have been evaluated. The local administration of PPADS decreased the face-rubbing activity and the expression of both neuronal and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. These results underline a relationship between orofacial inflammatory pain and nitroxidergic system in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and suggest a role of peripheral P2 receptors in trigeminal pain transmission influencing NO production at central level. In this way, orofacial pain physiology should be elucidated and applied to clinical practice in the future.