The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has precipitated a global health crisis of unprecedented proportions. Due to its severe impact, multiple COVID-19 vaccines are being developed, approved, and manufactured rapidly. However, some serious adverse events (AEs) were reported after the application of them, significantly increasing concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and doubts about the necessity of vaccination. Particularly, previous vaccination campaigns have shown us that partial vaccination can induce neurologic AEs. Herein, we discussed in depth the involvement of the nervous system during SARS-CoV-2 infection or after vaccination. On the one hand, COVID-19 could pose an enormous threat to human neurological health through direct infection and indirect neurotoxicity effects. On the other hand, our review indicated that only a few serious neurological AEs following vaccination occurred and among which headache was the most common. Moreover, some neurological AEs do not seem to be related to vaccination. Of course, the causal relationships between several vaccines and AEs are considered plausible and, it is not doubtful that these AEs should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of vaccinations in special populations. Nevertheless, in the case of the rapid spread of COVID-19, the potential side effects of vaccination on nervous system should be compared with adverse COVID-19 outcomes rather than being considered alone. Thus, it is obviously a wise option to be vaccinated instead of suffering from serious adverse symptoms of virus infection.