A 50-year-old patient presented with a two-year history of chronic osteomyelitis of the left mandibular body. It was treated by wide segmental resection of the left hemimandible and reconstruction with a free vascularized fibular graft. Six months after surgery, the patient returned with pain, swelling, and moth-like lesions in the transplant in combination with appositional bone formation surrounding the ossified fibular bone. Radiographic and histological examination led to the diagnosis of a recurrent osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis affecting the resected and reconstructed mandible. Application of ibandronate led to a significant symptom decrease.