Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is common in developing countries such as Benin. This germ may cause the development of gastroduodenal diseases, ranging from gastritis to gastric cancer. Several studies on this bacterium carried out in Benin have used serology, anatomopathological examination of biopsies or antigen detection test on stool sample collections. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and factors associated with H. pylori infection using a respiratory test. The bacterium could cause chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and peptic ulcer disease or, more rarely, gastric cancer or lymphoma.