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Papers of the Week

2022 Feb 17

Pharmaceuticals (Basel)



Tyrphostin AG1024 Suppresses Coronaviral Replication by Downregulating JAK1 via an IR/IGF-1R Independent Proteolysis Mediated by Ndfip1/2_NEDD4-like E3 Ligase Itch.


JAK1 depletion or downregulation was previously reported to account for coronavirus inhibition. Here, we found that AG1024, an IR (insulin receptor) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) inhibitor, diminishes JAK1 protein levels and exerts anti-coronaviral activities with EC values of 5.2 ± 0.3 μM against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) and 4.3 ± 0.3 μM against human flu coronavirus OC43. However, although the IR and IGF-1R signaling pathways are activated by insulin or IGF-1 in swine testis cells, they are not triggered upon TGEV infection. AG1024, therefore, inhibits coronaviral replication and downregulates JAK1 protein levels independently of IR and IGF-1R. Moreover, JAK1 proteolysis caused by AG1024 was found through activation of upstream Ndfip1/2 and its effector NEDD4-like E3 ligase Itch. In addition, ouabain, which was reported to mediate JAK1 proteolysis causing anti-coronaviral activity by activation of Ndfip1/2 and NEDD4 E3 ligase, additively inhibited anti-coronaviral activity and JAK1 diminishment in combination with AG1024. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacological effects of AG1024 and Itch E3 ligase mediated JAK1 proteolysis and identified Ndfip1/2 as a cognate effector for JAK1 proteolysis via the diversified E3 ligases NEDD4 and NEDD4-like Itch. These findings are expected to provide valued information for the future development of anti-viral agents.