Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disorder involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pelvic pain, based on a probable up regulation of the inflammatory system. The objective of the study is to investigate the peritoneal and serum levels of ENA-78 with the severity of endometriosis symptoms (dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia) using the visual analogue scale (VAS). This is a prospective case-control study that included 53 symptomatic women with evidence of endometriosis and 53 age-matched controls who underwent elective laparoscopic surgery for benign diseases. The concentration of ENA-78 was assessed in blood and peritoneal fluid samples in the follicular phase. In peritoneal fluid and plasma, the concentration of ENA-78 was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between peritoneal fluid ENA-78 levels and the severity of dysmenorrhea (Spearman Rho = 0.237; p = 0.014), and chronic pelvic pain (Spearman Rho = 0.220; p = 0.022) in endometriosis patients. Plasma levels ENA-78 showed a significant correlation with the severity (VAS score) of chronic pelvic pain (Spearman Rho = 0.270, p = 0.005 for cases), though a weak correlation was evident between plasma levels of ENA-78 and severity of dysmenorrhea (Spearman Rho = 0.083, p = 0.399 for cases). In conclusion, chronic pelvic pain in endometriosis is caused by changes of local and systemic activated chemokine patterns. These modifications involve the relationship between pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and angiostatic chemokines that modulate the severity of endometriosis associated symptoms.