Chronic pain is frequently reported after total hip and knee arthroplasties (THA/TKA) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We investigated if severity of acute postoperative pain following THA/TKA in OA patients was associated with pain during the first postoperative year. From an observational study, OA patients scheduled for primary THA/TKA (June 2012-December 2017) were included from two hospitals in the Netherlands. Acute postoperative pain scores were collected within 72 h postoperatively and categorized as no/mild (NRS ≤ 4) or moderate/severe (NRS > 4). Pain was assessed preoperatively, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively using the HOOS/KOOS subscale pain. With Multilevel Mixed-effects-analyses, we estimated associations between acute and chronic pain until one year postoperative, adjusted for confounders and including an interaction term (Time*Acute pain). 193 THA and 196 TKA patients were included, 29% of THA and 51% of TKA patients reported moderate/severe pain acutely after surgery. In the THA group, the difference in pain at 3 months between the no/mild and moderate/severe groups, was approximately six points, in favor of the no/mild group (95% CI [-12.4 to 0.9]) this difference became smaller over time. In the TKA group we found similar differences, with approximately four points (95% CI [-9.6 to 1.3]) difference between the no/mild and moderate/severe group at 6 months, this difference attenuated at 12 months. No association between severity of acute postoperative pain and pain during the first postoperative year was found. These findings suggest that measures to limit acute postoperative pain will likely not impact development of chronic pain.