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Papers: 26 Feb 2022 - 4 Mar 2022


2022 Feb 14

J Clin Med



Music Intervention for Pain Control in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.


Ting B, Tsai C-L, Hsu W-T, Shen M-L, Tseng P-T, Chen D T-L, Su K-P, Jingling L
J Clin Med. 2022 Feb 14; 11(4).
PMID: 35207263.


Music intervention (MI) has been applied as an effective adjunctive treatment for pain control in various clinical settings. However, no meta-analysis has yet been published on the analgesic effects of MI in infants and children. We performed a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the keywords "pain" AND "music therapy" from inception to January 2022. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and vital signs. Standardized mean difference (SMD) values and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using a random effect model. Subgroup analyses with age groups, types of pain, and music styles were conducted. A total of 38 RCTs involving 5601 participants met the selection criteria. MI significantly decreased the pain levels (SMD = -0.57, < 0.001), both in the newborn group ( = 0.007) and in the infant/children group ( < 0.001). MI significantly reduced heart rate (SMD = -0.50, < 0.001) and respiratory rate (SMD = -0.60, = 0.002) and increased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SMD = 0.44, < 0.001). In subgroup analyses of types of pain, MI had significant effects on prick pain ( = 0.003), chronic and procedural pain ( < 0.001), and postoperative pain ( = 0.018). As for music styles, significant analgesic effects were observed for classical music ( < 0.001), kids' music ( < 0.001), and pop music ( = 0.001), but not for world music ( = 0.196), special composition ( = 0.092), and multiple music combinations ( = 0.420). In conclusion, our analysis provides supportive evidence about the efficacy of MI, especially classical, kids', and pop music, in controlling prick, procedural, and postoperative pain in the pediatric population.