Articular cartilage allows the human body to buffer and absorb stress during normal exercise. It is mainly composed of cartilage cells and the extracellular matrix and is surrounded by the extracellular microenvironment formed by synovial fluid and various factors in it. Studies have shown that chondrocytes are the metabolic center of articular cartilage. Under physiological conditions, the extracellular matrix is in a dynamic balance of anabolism and catabolism, and various factors and physical and chemical conditions in the extracellular microenvironment are also in a steady state. This homeostasis depends on the normal function of proteins represented by various ion channels on chondrocytes. In mammalian chondrocyte species, ion channels are mainly divided into two categories: cation channels and anion channels. Anion channels such as chloride channels have become hot research topics in recent years. These channels play an extremely important role in various physiological processes. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that many pathological processes, abnormal concentration of mechanical stress and chloride channel dysfunction in articular cartilage lead to microenvironment disorders, matrix and bone metabolism imbalances, which cause partial aseptic inflammation. These pathological processes initiate extracellular matrix degradation, abnormal chondrocyte death, hyperplasia of inflammatory synovium and bony. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common clinical disease in orthopedics. Its typical manifestations are joint inflammation and pain caused by articular cartilage degeneration, but its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Focusing on the physiological functions and pathological changes of chloride channels and pathophysiology of aseptic inflammation furthers the understanding of OA pathogenesis and provides possible targets for subsequent medication development.