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Papers of the Week

Papers: 12 Feb 2022 - 18 Feb 2022

Pharmacology/Drug Development

2022 Jan 29

Int J Mol Sci



Overview of First-Line and Second-Line Pharmacotherapies for Osteoarthritis with Special Focus on Intra-Articular Treatment.


Nowaczyk A, Szwedowski D, Dallo I, Nowaczyk J
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 29; 23(3).
PMID: 35163488.


Osteoarthritis (OA) can be defined as the result of pathological processes of various etiologies leading to damage to the articular structures. Although the mechanism of degenerative changes has become better understood due to the plethora of biochemical and genetic studies, the drug that could stop the degenerative cascade is still unknown. All available forms of OA therapy are based on symptomatic treatment. According to actual guidelines, comprehensive treatment of OA should always include a combination of various therapeutic options aimed at common goals, which are pain relief in the first place, and then the improvement of function. Local treatment has become more common practice, which takes place between rehabilitation and pharmacological treatment in the hierarchy of procedures. Only in the case of no improvement and the presence of advanced lesions visible in imaging tests, should surgery be considered. Currently, an increasing number of studies are being published suggesting that intra-articular injections may be as effective or even more effective than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and result in fewer systemic adverse events. The most commonly used preparations are hyaluronic acid (HA), glucocorticosteroids (GS), and also platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in recent years. This review aims to present the mechanism of action and clinical effectiveness of different pharmacological options in relieving pain and improving functions in OA as well as the emerging approach in intra-articular treatment with PRP.