The spinal phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) plays an important role in chronic pain. Inhibition of PDE4, an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate AMP (cAMP), produces potent antinociceptive activity. However, the antinociceptive mechanism remains largely unknown. Connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, has been shown to be involved in controlling pain transduction at the spinal level; restoration of Cx43 expression in spinal astrocytes to the normal levels reduces nerve injury-induced pain. Here, we evaluate the novel mechanisms involving spinal cAMP-Cx43 signaling by which PDE4 inhibitors produce antinociceptive activity.