Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) disease has been considered as the main cause of low back pain (LBP), which is a very common symptom and the leading cause of disability worldwide today. The pathological mechanism of IDD remains quite complicated, and genetic, developmental, biochemical, and biomechanical factors all contribute to the development of the disease. There exists no effective, non-surgical treatment for IDD nowadays, which is largely related to the lack of knowledge of the specific mechanisms of IDD, and the lack of effective specific targets. Recently, non-coding RNA, including miRNA, has been recognized as an important regulator of gene expression. Current studies on the effects of miRNA in IDD have confirmed that a variety of miRNAs play a crucial role in the process of IDD via nucleus pulposus cells (NPC) apoptosis, abnormal proliferation, inflammatory factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and annulus fibrosus (AF) degeneration. In the past 10 years, research on miRNA has been quite active in IDD. This review summarizes the current research progression of miRNA in the IDD and puts forward some prospects and challenges on non-surgical treatment for IDD.