Background Although video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a less invasive technique compared to thoracotomy, patients often experience postoperative pain. Hence, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is frequently used. The geriatric age group constitutes a significant portion of patients undergoing thoracic surgery. However, pain management can often be difficult in elderly patients. In this study, we aimed to examine the pain management techniques applied in geriatric patients who underwent VATS and to compare the efficacy and side effects of PCA with morphine and tramadol. Methodology The following patients were included in this study: aged 65 years and older, those who underwent elective VATS under general anesthesia, and those who underwent thoracic paravertebral block in the operating room for postoperative pain. We recorded diagnoses, demographic data, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, complications developed during the intraoperative or postoperative 24 hours, postoperative rest and cough Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and need for additional analgesics. The patients were divided into the following two groups: those treated with tramadol PCA (tramadol group) and those treated with morphine PCA (morphine group). Results A total of 65 patients were included in this study. Overall, 22 patients were administered tramadol PCA while 43 were administered morphine PCA. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups concerning complications. The 24-hour VAS resting score was statistically significantly lower in patients administered morphine than those administered tramadol (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups concerning zero-minute, thirty-minute, one-hour, two-hour, six-hour, and twelve-hour VAS resting and cough scores at all times (p > 0.05). Conclusions There was no significant difference in the tramadol and morphine groups concerning analgesic efficacy, patient satisfaction, and side effects among geriatric patients who underwent VATS and were administered intravenous PCA. In our view, both tramadol and morphine can be used safely in geriatric patients requiring intravenous PCA. Moreover, because the 24-hour analgesic efficacy was observed to be better in the morphine group in our study, morphine can be preferred in geriatric patients.