Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease that severely affects the life quality of patients. Current therapeutics in clinic mainly focus on alleviating the development of RA or relieving the pain of patients. The emerging biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) require long-term treatment to achieve the expected efficacy. With the development of bionanotechnology, nucleic acids fulfill characters as therapeutics or nanocarriers and can therefore be alternatives to combat RA. This review summarizes the therapeutic RNAs developed through RNA interference (RNAi), nucleic acid aptamers, DNA nanostructures-based drug delivery systems, and nucleic acid vaccines for the applications in RA therapy and diagnosis. Furthermore, prospects of nucleic acids for RA therapy are intensively discussed as well.