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Papers of the Week

2021 Sep

Turk J Urol



Current advances in neuromodulation techniques in urology practices: A review of literature.


Erol B, Danacioglu Y O, Peters KM
Turk J Urol. 2021 Sep; 47(5):375-385.
PMID: 35118977.


Neuromodulation has become a valid therapeutic option for patients with various lower urinary tract disorders. In clinical practice, the most used and recommended neuromodulation techniques are sacral neuromodulation (SNM), pudendal neuromodulation (PN), and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS). There are many theories concerning the mechanism of action of neuromodulation. Although SNM, PN, and PTNS show their activities through different nerve roots, all provide central and peripheral nervous system modulations. SNM has been approved for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), nonobstructive urinary retention, and fecal incontinence, while PTNS has been approved for OAB treatment. However, they are also used off-label in other urinary and nonurinary pelvic floor disorders, such as neurogenic lower urinary system disorder, interstitial cystitis, chronic pelvic pain, and sexual dysfunction. Minor and nonsurgical reversible complications are usually seen after neuromodulation techniques. In addition, in the last few years, there have been various developments in neuromodulation technology. Some of the examples of these developments are rechargeable batteries with wireless charging, improvements in programing, less invasive single-stage implantation in outpatient settings, and lower-cost new devices. We performed a literature search using Medline (PubMed), Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google scholar databases in the English language from January 2010 to February 2021. We included reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies to evaluate the activities and reliability of SNM, PN, and PTNS and the developments in this area in the last decade based on the current literature.