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Papers of the Week

Papers: 29 Jan 2022 - 4 Feb 2022

Animal Studies, Pharmacology/Drug Development

2022 Feb 08

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A



Editor's Pick

Mice expressing fluorescent PAR reveal that endocytosis mediates colonic inflammation and pain.


Latorre R, Hegron A, Peach CJ, Teng S, Tonello R, Retamal JS, Klein-Cloud R, Bok D, Jensen DD, Gottesman-Katz L, Rientjes J, Veldhuis NA, Poole DP, Schmidt BL, Pothoulakis CH, Rankin C, Xie Y, Koon H W, Bunnett NW
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Feb 08; 119(6).
PMID: 35110404.


G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate many pathophysiological processes and are major therapeutic targets. The impact of disease on the subcellular distribution and function of GPCRs is poorly understood. We investigated trafficking and signaling of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR) in colitis. To localize PAR and assess redistribution during disease, we generated knockin mice expressing PAR fused to monomeric ultrastable green fluorescent protein (muGFP). PAR-muGFP signaled and trafficked normally. PAR messenger RNA was detected at similar levels in and wild-type mice. Immunostaining with a GFP antibody and RNAScope in situ hybridization using (PAR) and probes revealed that PAR-muGFP was expressed in epithelial cells of the small and large intestine and in subsets of enteric and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In healthy mice, PAR-muGFP was prominently localized to the basolateral membrane of colonocytes. In mice with colitis, PAR-muGFP was depleted from the plasma membrane of colonocytes and redistributed to early endosomes, consistent with generation of proinflammatory proteases that activate PAR PAR agonists stimulated endocytosis of PAR and recruitment of Gα, Gα, and β-arrestin to early endosomes of T84 colon carcinoma cells. PAR agonists increased paracellular permeability of colonic epithelial cells, induced colonic inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice, and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release from segments of human colon. Knockdown of dynamin-2 (), the major colonocyte isoform, and Dnm inhibition attenuated PAR endocytosis, signaling complex assembly and colonic inflammation and hyperalgesia. Thus, PAR endocytosis sustains protease-evoked inflammation and nociception and PAR in endosomes is a potential therapeutic target for colitis.