Neuropathic pain and chronic pain constitute an interdisciplinary problem on the border of medicine, psychology, sociology and economics. While it seems to be underestimated, the scale of this problem will continue to increase due to the population aging and the growing incidence of lifestyle disorders. People employed in various occupational sectors may also wrestle with these disease units, which affect the quality of their life, mental health and work productivity. A narrative review provided an overview of neuropathic pain and chronic pain, and their relationship to such factors as job type, work absenteeism and productivity decline, as well mental well-being. A systematic literature search was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify appropriate literature by searching the electronic databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Pain Journal and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies were published in Polish, English and French. Research shows an increasing number of musculoskeletal diseases in professionally active people, which lead to disability or provoke work absences. However, sickness presenteeism and/or absenteeism caused by pain not only leads to economic burdens, but also to burnout, fatigue and depression syndromes in employees. These disorders may require specialized effective interventions to support the return to work or maintaining employment despite experiencing pain. Every patient with chronic or neuropathic pain should be correctly assessed to determine the best method of treatment and its effectiveness.