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Infect Drug Resist


Pathogenicity Islands and Cysteine Proteases in Role of Coinfection and Pathogenesis.


Tilahun M, Gedefie A, Belayhun C, Sahle Z, Abera A
Infect Drug Resist. 2022; 15:21-34.
PMID: 35023934.


is a well-known human-specific stomach pathogen that infects more than half of the world's population. The infection with this bacterium can cause a variety of gastrointestinal problems, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and even cancer. is a highly infectious bacterium. causes an increase in gastric mucosa pH or gastric mucosa intestinal metaplasia. These modifications in the stomach environment are necessary for colonization to occur. is a flagellate protozoan parasite that can cause giardiasis in humans and other mammals. It dwells in the duodenum and upper jejunum. Globally, over 280 million cases of human giardiasis are predicted to occur each year. Simultaneous human colonization by and is a typical occurrence since the viruses' predisposing factors are similar in both groups. Giardiasis is a parasitic infection that affects both children and adults worldwide. Infection with is more common in underdeveloped countries. Globally, more than 200 million cases of giardiasis are detected each year. In contrast, the presence of in the host body triggers an immunological response comparable to that of , with lymphocytes strongly polarized towards Th1. As a result, their combined presence exacerbates host tissue damage. The major goal of this seminar is to describe the pathophysiology, immunology, and clinical aspects of and coinfection using a comprehensive search of PubMed, Lancet, and Google Scholar sources. Upper gastrointestinal problems such as upper abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain/burning, and belching are all caused by both organisms. Differentiation by physical examination is impossible in people infected with both bacteria. For this coinfection distinction, a laboratory diagnosis is required. and , when present together, have a synergistic effect on the host and can cause serious damage. As a result, researchers should delve deeper into the mechanics underlying this potential microbial interaction.