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Papers: 8 Jan 2022 - 14 Jan 2022


2022 Jan 11

Neurol Sci

Update on diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vestibular migraine.



Vestibular migraine (VM) is considered the most common cause of spontaneous episodic vertigo and the second most common cause of vertigo. However, without a biomarker or a complete understanding of the pathophysiology, VM remains underrecognized and underdiagnosed. Therefore, definite diagnostic criteria are urgently needed. Meanwhile, VM should be clearly differentiated from other similar diseases. This paper may help clinicians improve the diagnostic rate of VM and reduce the rate of misdiagnosis. A PubMed search was performed using the following terms: vestibular migraine, migraine-associated vertigo/dizziness, migraine-related vertigo, migraine-related vestibulopathy, benign recurrent vertigo, vertiginous migraine, migraine, headache, vertigo, dizziness, and diagnosis. This paper also summarizes the diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses of VM. The diagnosis of VM is based on the symptoms, degree, frequency, and duration of the vestibular episodes, a history of migraine, and the temporal association of migraine symptoms with vestibular episodes in at least 50% of cases, while ruling out what may be due to other reasons. In addition to vestibular symptoms and migraine, transient auditory symptoms, nausea, vomiting, and susceptibility to motion sickness may also be associated with VM. Thus, VM should be differentiated from other diseases such as Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, migraine with brainstem aura, vestibular neuritis, posterior circulation ischemia, multiple lacunar infarction, vestibular paroxysmia, motion sickness, and episodic ataxia type 2.