: Many chronic pain (CP) awareness and educational initiatives have been achieved, but it is time to take stock of where we are today. : The aim of this study was to describe and identify determinants of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of different subgroups of the Quebec population regarding CP and especially toward people suffering from this condition. : A web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June 2014. : A total of 1958 participants responded, among whom 70.9% reported suffering from CP and 14.4% reported being a health care professional (HCP). Almost half of the participants were not aware that the risk of developing CP is increased after undergoing surgery or that CP affects approximately one in five adults. A minority (10.30%) agreed that HCP are well trained in CP treatment. The two most frequent negative beliefs were that people suffering from CP become dependent on their medications as do drug addicts (16.7%) and that consulting a psychologist is useless unless the person with CP is depressed (16.9%). Multiple regression analysis showed that being a woman, being born in Canada, being unemployed, suffering from CP, and being an HCP were predictors of better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward people suffering from CP (all values < 0.05). Older age and residing in a remote region were associated with poorer knowledge and more negative attitudes. : Our results underline the importance of continuing the efforts and the need for more education programs, awareness campaigns, and stigma reduction activities about CP for HCP, patients, and the general public.