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Papers of the Week

Papers: 8 Jan 2022 - 14 Jan 2022

Pharmacology/Drug Development

2022 Feb 01

Behav Pharmacol



Isobolographic analysis of antinociceptive effect of ketorolac, indomethacin, and paracetamol after simultaneous peripheral local and systemic administration.


Martínez-Martínez M D C, Parra-Flores L I, Baeza-Flores G D C, Torres-López J E
Behav Pharmacol. 2022 Feb 01; 33(1):15-22.
PMID: 35007232.


This study was designed to characterize the type of interaction (subadditive, additive, or synergistic) after simultaneous administration by two different routes (intraperitoneal plus peripheral local) of the same nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) ketorolac and indomethacin or paracetamol. The antinociceptive effects of locally or intraperitoneally delivery of NSAIDs or paracetamol, and the simultaneous administration by the two routes at fixed-dose ratio combination were evaluated using the formalin test. Pain-related behavior was quantified as the number of flinches of the injected paw. Isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the interaction between the two routes. ED30 values were estimated for individual drugs, and isobolograms were constructed. Ketorolac, indomethacin, or paracetamol and fixed-dose ratio combinations produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the second but not in the first phase of the formalin test. The analysis of interaction type after simultaneous administration by the two routes the same NSAID or paracetamol (on basis of their ED30), revealed that the simultaneous administration of ketorolac or paracetamol was additive and for indomethacin was synergistic. Since the mechanisms underlying the additive effect of ketorolac or paracetamol and the synergistic effect of indomethacin were not explored; it is possible that the peripheral and central mechanism is occurring at several anatomical sites. The significance of these findings for theory and pain pharmacotherapy practice indicates that the combination of one analgesic drug given simultaneously by two different administration routes could be an additive or it could lead to a synergistic interaction.