Frailty develops due to multiple factors, such as sarcopenia, chronic pain, and dementia. Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine used for age-related symptoms. We have reported that GJG improved sarcopenia, chronic pain, and central nervous system function through suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production. In the present study, GJG was found to reduce the production of TNF-α in the soleus muscle of senescence-accelerated mice at 12 weeks and 36 weeks. GJG did not change the differentiation of C2C12 cells with 2% horse serum. GJG significantly decreased the expression of Muscle atrophy F-box protein (MAFbx) induced by TNF-α in C2C12 cells on real-time PCR. TNF-α significantly decreased the expression of PGC-1α and negated the enhancing effect of GJG for the expression of PGC-1α on digital PCR. Examining 20 chemical compounds derived from GJG, cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon bark and Chikusetsusaponin V (CsV) from Achyrantes Root dose-dependently decreased the production of TNF-⍺ in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. CsV inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 in RAW264.7 cells. CsV showed low permeability using Caco-2 cells. However, the plasma concentration of CsV was detected from 30 minutes to 6 h and peaked at 1 h in the CD1 (ICR) mice after a single dose of GJG. In 8-week-old SAMP8 mice fed 4% (w/w) GJG from one week to four weeks, the plasma CsV concentration ranged from 0.0500 to 10.0 ng/mL. The evidence that CsV plays an important role in various anti-aging effects of GJG via suppression of TNF-⍺ expression is presented.