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2021 Jul 06

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets

Mini-Review on SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Neurological Manifestations: A Perspective.


Chavda V, Jan A T, Yadav D
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2021 Jul 06.
PMID: 34967301.


The coronavirus, also known as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-19), with its rapid rate of transmission, has progressed with a great impact on respiratory function and mortality worldwide. The nasal cavity is the promising gateway of SARS-CoV-2 to reach the brain via systemic circulatory distribution. Recent reports have revealed that the loss of involuntary process of breathing control into the brainstem that results in death is a signal of neurological involvement. Early neurological symptoms, like loss of smell, convulsions, and ataxia, are the clues of the involvement of the central nervous system that makes the entry of SARS-CoV-2 further fatal and life-threatening, requiring artificial respiration and emergency admission in hospitals. Studies performed on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 has revealed three-stage involvement of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Direct involvement of CNS with headache, ataxia, dizziness, altered or impaired consciousness, acute stroke or seizures as major symptoms, peripheral involvement with impaired taste, smell, vision, and altered nociception, and skeletal muscle impairment that includes skeletal muscle disorders leading to acute paralysis in a particular area of the body. In the previous era, most studied and researched viruses were beta coronavirus and mouse hepatitis virus, which were studied for acute and chronic encephalitis and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Although the early symptoms of SARS-CoV are respiratory pathogenesis, the differential diagnosis should always be considered for neurological perspective to stop the mortalities.