Tramadol (TMDL) is an opioid analgesic widely administered for the management of moderate to severe pain. On the other hand, TMDL is commonly abused in many countries because of its availability and cheap cost. Renal injury is related to high dose or chronic administration of TMDL. No precise mechanism for TMDL-induced renal damage has been identified so far. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in the pathogenesis of TMDL-induced renal injury. For this purpose, rats were treated with TMDL (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p, 28 consecutive days). A significant increase in serum Cr and BUN was detected in TMDL groups. On the other hand, TMDL (80 mg/kg) caused a substantial increase in urine glucose, ALP, protein, and γ-GT levels. Moreover, urine Cr was significantly decreased in TMDL-treated rats (40 and 80 mg/kg). Renal histopathological alterations included inflammation, necrosis, and tubular degeneration in the kidney of TMDL-treated animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation was increased, whereas total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione levels were considerably decreased in TMDL groups. Significant mitochondrial impairment was also detected in the form of mitochondrial depolarization, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) depletion, mitochondrial permeabilization, lipid peroxidation, and decreased mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in the kidney of TMDL (80 mg/kg)-treated animals. These data suggest mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress as mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of TMDL-induced renal injury.