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Papers of the Week

2021 Sep 29

Folia Med Cracov



Microvascular angina (Cardiac Syndrome X) from a historical overview, epidemiology, pathophysiology to treatment recommendations – a minireview.


Jarczewski J, Jarczewska A, Boryczko A, Poniatowski A, Furgała A, Surdacki A, Gil K
Folia Med Cracov. 2021 Sep 29; 61(3):95-114.
PMID: 34882667.


Microvascular angina (MVA) is a condition characterized by the presence of angina-like chest pain, a positive response to exercise stress tests, and no significant stenosis of coronary arteries in coronary angiography, with absence of any other specific cardiac diseases. The etiology of this syndrome is still not known and it is probably multifactorial. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is proposed as the main pathophysiological mechanism in the development of MVA. Altered somatic and visceral pain perception and autonomic imbalance, in addition to myocardial ischemia, has been observed in subjects with MVA, involving dynamic variations in the vasomotor tone of coronary microcirculation with consequent transient ischemic episodes. Other theories suggest that MVA may be a result of a chronic inflammatory state in the body that can negatively influence the endothelium or a local imbalance of factors regulating its function. This article presents the latest information about the epidemiology, diagnostics, etiopathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with MVA.