The green-lipped mussel (GLM) contains novel omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which exhibit anti-inflammatory and joint-protecting properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by a progressive loss of cartilage; oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the in vivo effects of the GLM on pain severity and cartilage degeneration using an experimental rat OA model, and to explore the mode of action of GLM. OA was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the knee. Oral GLM was initiated on the day after 3dyas of MIA injection. Limb nociception was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal latency and threshold. Samples were analyzed both macroscopically and histologically. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitrotyrosine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in knee joints. Also, the GLM was applied to OA chondrocyte, and the expression on catabolic marker and necroptosis factor were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Administration of the GLM improved pain levels by preventing cartilage damage and inflammation. GLM significantly attenuated the expression levels of mRNAs encoding matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), MMP-13, and ADAMTS5 in IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. GLM decreased the expression levels of the necroptosis mediators RIPK1, RIPK3, and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) in IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Thus, GLM reduced pain and cartilage degeneration in rats with experimentally induced OA. The chondroprotective properties of GLM included suppression of oxidative damage and inhibition of catabolic factors implicated in the pathogenesis of OA cartilage damage. We suggest that GLM may usefully treat human OA.