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2021 Jul 29

Cardiol Young

Debating the embolization of a large aberrant systemic artery for pulmonary sequestration using an Amplatzer duct occluder: a case report and literature review.


Here, we report two rare cases of pulmonary sequestration that were fed by large systemic arteries and embolized with a large Amplatzer duct occluder and their 3-year follow-up, and we discuss the efficacy and safety of the embolization of a large aberrant systemic artery to pulmonary sequestration using an Amplatzer duct occluder. A 9-year-old boy complained of chest pain for 1 month, and a 6-year-old boy initially complained of recurrent cough for 3 months. A series of examinations was launched to evaluate any possible malformation or abnormalities in the patients. Chest CT and CTA identified a right lower pulmonary sequestration with infection. After admission, transcatheter device occlusion was planned after essential antibiotic treatment, and postoperative infection prevention and anti-inflammatory treatment were given. In the following 2 years of follow-up, neither of the children had recurrent chest pain, cough or other related symptoms. However, the CT follow-up demonstrated that a residual mass was visible in both patients. The same chest scan section revealed slight reductions in lung lesions from 38.344 cm2 to 37.119 cm2 (3% reduction) and 14.243 cm2 to 13.178 cm2 (7.5% reduction) for each patient. No follow-up data demonstrated the long-term clinical outcomes of the residual lesion. We do not recommend that embolization be performed for large pulmonary sequestration lesions with an aberrant artery larger than 6 mm that is planned to receive a device larger than 10 mm, as their outcomes showed a higher possibility of rebuilding the vascularization network feeding the pulmonary sequestration, indicating a higher risk for long-term complications.