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Papers of the Week

Papers: 17 Jul 2021 - 23 Jul 2021



Front Immunol


Th2 Modulation of Transient Receptor Potential Channels: An Unmet Therapeutic Intervention for Atopic Dermatitis.


Meng J, Li Y, Fischer M J, Steinhoff M, Chen W, Wang J
Front Immunol. 2021; 12:696784.
PMID: 34276687.


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifaceted, chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that affects people of all ages. It is characterized by chronic eczema, constant pruritus, and severe discomfort. AD often progresses from mild annoyance to intractable pruritic inflammatory lesions associated with exacerbated skin sensitivity. The T helper-2 (Th2) response is mainly linked to the acute and subacute phase, whereas Th1 response has been associated in addition with the chronic phase. IL-17, IL-22, TSLP, and IL-31 also play a role in AD. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels play a significant role in neuroinflammation, itch and pain, indicating neuroimmune circuits in AD. However, the Th2-driven cutaneous sensitization of TRP channels is underappreciated. Emerging findings suggest that critical Th2-related cytokines cause potentiation of TRP channels, thereby exaggerating inflammation and itch sensation. Evidence involves the following: (i) IL-13 enhances TRPV1 and TRPA1 transcription levels; (ii) IL-31 sensitizes TRPV1 transcriptional and channel modulation, and indirectly modulates TRPV3 in keratinocytes; (iii) The Th2-cytokine TSLP increases TRPA1 synthesis in sensory neurons. These changes could be further enhanced by other Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-25, and IL-33, which are inducers for IL-13, IL-31, or TSLP in skin. Taken together, this review highlights that Th2 cytokines potentiate TRP channels through diverse mechanisms under different inflammatory and pruritic conditions, and link this effect to distinct signaling cascades in AD. This review strengthens the notion that interrupting Th2-driven modulation of TRP channels will inhibit transition from acute to chronic AD, thereby aiding the development of effective therapeutics and treatment optimization.