Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute and transient dysfunction of the apical segment of the left ventricle. In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of case reports about TTS; however, it is still being neglected and misdiagnosed in many primary hospitals in China. We present a case of a 68-year-old female who presented to our hospital with one month of paroxysmal cough. Here severe cough would sometimes induce headache, chest pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had an unexplained cardiogenic shock approximately 4 months prior and gradually developed orthopnea. Cardiac biomarkers were mildly elevated, and electrocardiogram (ECG) displayed diffuse and deep T-waves inversion in leads I, II, AVL, and V2-V9, like acute myocardial infarction. However, coronary angiography was performed and showed the absence of obstructed coronary atherosclerosis or acute plaque rupture. The patient was successively treated in four hospitals and was eventually diagnosed with TTS in our hospital (the fourth hospital) due to noncardiogenic discomfort. Physicians at some primary hospitals require additional clinical experience to deeply understand TTS. Many doctors could learn about TTS from a medical textbook but remain unfamiliar with the disease. We hope that through analysis of this case, primary doctors will have a deeper understanding of TTS, avoid misdiagnosing the typical cases that occur in their patients.