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2021 Jul 15

Eur J Hum Genet

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) guideline for the gene-drug interaction between CYP2D6 and opioids (codeine, tramadol and oxycodone).


Matic M, Nijenhuis M, Soree B, de Boer-Veger NJ, Buunk A-M, Houwink EJF, Mulder H, Rongen GAPJM, van der Weide J, Wilffert B, Swen JJ, Guchelaar H-J, Deneer VHM, van Schaik RHN
Eur J Hum Genet. 2021 Jul 15.
PMID: 34267337.


The current Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) guideline, describes the gene-drug interaction between CYP2D6 and the opioids codeine, tramadol and oxycodone. CYP2D6 genotype is translated into normal metaboliser (NM), intermediate metaboliser (IM), poor metaboliser (PM) or ultra-rapid metaboliser (UM). Codeine is contraindicated in UM adults if doses >20 mg every 6 h (q6h), in children ≥12 years if doses >10 mg q6h, or with additional risk factors. In PMs, an alternative analgesic should be given which is not or to a lesser extent metabolised by CYP2D6 (not tramadol). In IMs with insufficient analgesia, a higher dose or alternative analgesic should be given. For tramadol, the recommendations for IMs and PMs are the same as the recommendation for codeine and IMs. UMs should receive an alternative drug not or to a lesser extent metabolised by CYP2D6 or the dose should be decreased to 40% of the commonly prescribed dose. Due to the absence of effect on clinical outcomes of oxycodone in PMs, IMs and UMs no action is required. DPWG classifies CYP2D6 genotyping for codeine "beneficial" and recommends testing prior to, or shortly after initiation of treatment in case of higher doses or additional risk factors. CYP2D6 genotyping is classified as "potentially beneficial" for tramadol and can be considered on an individual patient basis.