Comorbid chronic pain and depression are increasingly becoming a concerning public problem, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that pain-related depression-like behaviors are induced in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). Using this model, we found that chronic neuropathic pain decreased the activity and expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, an NAD-dependent deacetylase) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). In addition, the pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 in the CeA could alleviate the depression-like behaviors associated with chronic pain while relieving sensory pain. Accordingly, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated SIRT1 overexpression in the CeA produced a positive effect on the easement of chronic pain and comorbid depression. Taken together, these findings highlight the role of SIRT1 in the CeA in chronic pain and depression states and reveal that the upregulation of SIRT1 may be a potential therapy for the treatment of pain-depression comorbidities.