The Social Gradient of Health (SGH), or position in the social hierarchy, is one of the major determinants of health. It influences the development and evolution of many chronic diseases. Chronic pain dramatically affects individual and social condition. Its medico-economic impact is significant and worldwide. Failed Back Surgery Syndrome or Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome type 2 (PSPS-T2) represents one of its most fascinating and disabling conditions. However, the influence of SGH on PSPS-T2 has been poorly explored. We designed a prospective multicentric study (PREDIBACK study) to assess the SGH prevalence, and to examine its association with medical and psychological variables, in PSPS-T2 patients. This study included 200 patients to determine the SGH association with pain (NPRS), Quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), kinesiophobia (FABQ-Work), catastrophism (CSQ), and functional capacity (ODI). Around 85.3% of PSPS-T2 patients in our study had low SGH. Low SGH patients had a higher FABQ-Work and CSQ-Catastrophizing score than high SGH patients ( < 0.05). High SGH patients have a higher ODI score than low SGH patients ( < 0.10). Our results suggest that SGH is a relevant factor to guide prevention, research, and ultimately intervention in PSPS-T2 patients and could be more widely transposed to chronic pain.