Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs) have potential applications in regenerative medicine. UCMSCs have been demonstrated to repair tissue damage in many inflammatory and degenerative diseases. We have previously shown that UCMSC exosomes reduce nerve injury-induced pain in rats. In this study, we characterized UCMSC exosomes using RNA sequencing and proteomic analyses and investigated their protective effects on cisplatin-induced hearing loss in mice. Two independent experiments were designed to investigate the protective effects on cisplatin-induced hearing loss in mice: (i) chronic intraperitoneal cisplatin administration (4 mg/kg) once per day for 5 consecutive days and intraperitoneal UCMSC exosome (1.2 μg/μL) injection at the same time point; and (ii) UCMSC exosome (1.2 μg/μL) injection through a round window niche 3 days after chronic cisplatin administration. Our data suggest that UCMSC exosomes exert protective effects in vivo. The post-traumatic administration of UCMSC exosomes significantly improved hearing loss and rescued the loss of cochlear hair cells in mice receiving chronic cisplatin injection. Neuropathological gene panel analyses further revealed the UCMSC exosomes treatment led to beneficial changes in the expression levels of many genes in the cochlear tissues of cisplatin-injected mice. In conclusion, UCMSC exosomes exerted protective effects in treating ototoxicity-induced hearing loss by promoting tissue remodeling and repair.