This study sought to identify the short- and long-term changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after mitral valve repair (MVr) in patients with chronic primary mitral regurgitation according to preoperative LVEF (pre-LVEF) and preoperative left ventricular end-systolic diameter (pre-LVESD). This study evaluated 461 patients. Restricted cubic spline regression models were constructed to demonstrate the long-term changes in postoperative LVEF (post-LVEF). The patients were divided into four groups according to pre-LVEF (<50%, 50-60%, 60-70%, and ≥70%). The higher the pre-LVEF was, the greater was the decrease in LVEF immediately after MVr. In the same pre-LVEF range, immediate post-LVEF was lower in patients with pre-LVESD ≥ 40 mm than in those with pre-LVESD < 40 mm. The patterns of long-term changes in post-LVEF differed according to pre-LVEF ( for interaction < 0.001). The long-term post-LVEF reached a plateau of approximately 60% when the pre-LVEF was ≥50%, but it seemed to show a downward trend after reaching a peak at approximately 3-4 years after MVr when the pre-LVEF was ≥70%. The patterns of short- and long-term changes in post-LVEF differed according to pre-LVEF and pre-LVESD values in patients with chronic primary mitral regurgitation after MVr.