Nowadays, we consume very large amounts of medicinal substances. Medicines are used to cure, halt, or prevent disease, ease symptoms, or help in the diagnosis of illnesses. Some medications are used to treat pain. Ibuprofen is one of the most popular drugs in the world (it ranks third). This drug enters our water system through human pharmaceutical use. In this article, we describe and compare the biodegradation of ibuprofen and ibuprofen derivatives-salts of L-valine alkyl esters. Biodegradation studies of ibuprofen and its derivatives have been carried out with activated sludge. The structure modifications we received were aimed at increasing the biodegradation of the drug used. The influence of the alkyl chain length of the ester used in the biodegradation of the compound was also verified. The biodegradation results correlated with the lipophilic properties ( P).