The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-handicap elite golfers with chronic low back pain (CLBP) exhibit deficits in dynamic postural control and whether CLBP affects golfers in terms of their golf swing parameters. A total of fifteen Division 1 college golfers were recruited as participants. Of these, six of whom experienced CLBP, while the remaining participants were healthy. In this study, CLBP was defined as experiencing chronic pain symptoms for more than six months. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was administered to examine dynamic posture control in both groups. The TrackMan Golf Launch Monitor Simulator was used to collect data on the performance parameters of the swing of the participants. The results for both feet in the medial, lateral, posterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions indicated that the CLBP group scored lower than the control group. However, the CLBP group scored higher for the right foot in the anterolateral direction. The parameters for the club speed and ball carry of the CLBP group were lower than those of the control group. Further, the CLBP group exhibited a more upright swing plane relative to the control group. Taken together, our findings suggest that SEBT may be feasible and highly accessible to assess golf swing performance of elite players with CLBP.