Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that exist in three isoforms: PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Studies suggest that the PPAR signalling system may modulate pain, anxiety and cognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous signalling via PPARs differentially modulates innate anxiety responses and mnemonic function in the presence and absence of inflammatory pain. We examined the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GW6471 (PPARα antagonist), GSK0660 (PPARβ/δ antagonist), GW9662 (PPARγ antagonist), and -palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on rat behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field (OF), light-dark box (LDB), and novel object recognition (NOR) tests in the presence or absence of chronic inflammatory pain. Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-injected rats exhibited impaired recognition and spatial mnemonic performance in the NOR test and pharmacological blockade of PPARα further impaired spatial memory in CFA-treated rats. -oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels were higher in the dorsal hippocampus in CFA-injected animals compared to their counterparts. The results suggest a modulatory effect of CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain on cognitive processing, but not on innate anxiety-related responses. Increased OEA-PPARα signalling may act as a compensatory mechanism to preserve spatial memory function following CFA injection.