A stable and precise articulation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis maintains the tibiofibular relationship, and it is essential for normal motion of the ankle joint. The disruption of this joint is frequently accompanied by rotational ankle fracture, such as pronation-external rotation, and rarely occurs without ankle fracture. The diagnosis is not simple, and ideal management of the various presentations of syndesmotic injury remains controversial to this day. Anatomical restoration and stabilization of the disrupted tibiofibular syndesmosis is essential to improve functional outcomes. In such an injury, including inadequately treated, misdiagnosed and correctly diagnosed cases, a chronic pattern characterized by persistent ankle pain, function disability and early osteoarthritis can result. This paper reviews anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of this syndesmosis, the mechanism of its acute injury associated to fractures, radiological and arthroscopic diagnosis and surgical treatment.