Although microglia activation plays an important role in the development of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord microglia activation in nerve injury are not completely understood. Recently, two injured sensory neuron-derived molecules, colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and GT1b, were proposed to trigger spinal cord microglia activation, yet their relationship and relative contribution to microglia activation have not been addressed. In the present study, the role of GT1b and CSF-1 in microglia activation and proliferation was characterized. GT1b stimulation upregulated proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), without microglia proliferation. Conversely, CSF-1 stimulation induced microglia proliferation with minimal proinflammatory gene induction. Notably, neither GT1b nor CSF-1 induced mechanical hypersensitivity in female mice; however, they induced similar microglial proliferation in both male and female mice. Taken together, our data indicate that injured sensory neuron-derived GT1b and CSF-1 activate spinal cord microglia in concert through distinct activation pathways.