Both spinal tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to the development of "mechanical" spinal hyperexcitability in inflammatory pain states. Recently we found that spinal sensitization by TNF was significantly reduced by blockade of spinal IL-6 signaling suggesting that IL-6 signaling is involved in spinal TNF effects. Here we explored whether spinal interleukin-1β (IL-1β), also implicated in inflammatory pain, induces "mechanical" spinal hyperexcitability, and whether spinal IL-1β effects are related to TNF and IL-6 effects. We recorded the responses of spinal cord neurons to mechanical stimulation of the knee joint in vivo and used cellular approaches on microglial and astroglial cell lines to identify interactions of IL-1β, TNF, and IL-6. Spinal application of IL-1β in anaesthetized rats modestly enhanced responses of spinal cord neurons to innocuous and noxious mechanical joint stimulation. This effect was blocked by minocycline indicating microglia involvement, and significantly attenuated by interfering with IL-6 signaling. In the BV2 microglial cell line, IL-1β, like TNF, enhanced the release of soluble IL-6 receptor, necessary for spinal IL-6 actions. Different to TNF, IL-1β caused SNB-19 astrocytes to release interleukin-11. The generation of "mechanical" spinal hyperexcitability by IL-1β was more pronounced upon spinal TNF neutralization with etanercept, suggesting that concomitant TNF limits IL-1β effects. In BV2 cells, TNF stimulated the release of IL-1Ra, an endogenous IL-1β antagonist. Thus spinal IL-1β has the potential to induce spinal hyperexcitability sharing with TNF dependency on IL-6 signaling, but TNF also limited IL-1β effects explaining the modest effect of IL-1β.