Chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur, and research suggests that these two conditions exacerbate one another producing greater impact on normal functioning in combination than separately. The influence of traumatic experiences on both pain and PTSD have been shown, but the nature of this interplay remains unclear. Although Criterion A trauma is required for the diagnosis of PTSD, whether the association between PTSD and chronic pain is dependent on Criterion A is underexplored. In this observational cohort study, we examined the association between pain and PTSD-like symptoms in the context of Criterion A trauma in 5791 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Correlations and mixed-effects regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version symptoms and multiple indicators of pain from the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire across trauma history and chronic pain conditions. 53.21% of the participants experienced trauma consistent with DSM-IV Criterion A for PTSD. The associations between pain indicators and PTSD-like symptoms was stronger for individuals with a history of trauma but remained robust for individuals without trauma history. Small but significant interactions between past trauma and pain indicators and PTSD-like symptoms were observed. Findings were similar in a subsample of participants with history of chronic pain conditions. The relationship between PTSD-like symptoms and indicators of pain were largely independent of trauma consistent with Criterion A, highlighting the need to better understand and address stressful life events in chronic pain patients and pain concerns in individuals reporting trauma. Perspective: This article demonstrates that the relationship between PTSD-like symptoms and indicators of pain is largely independent of trauma consistent with Criterion A. This finding highlights the need to better understand and address stressful life events in chronic pain patients and pain concerns in individuals reporting trauma.