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2021 May 20

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol

Acute toxicity, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the orally administered crotamine in mice.


Moreira LA, Oliveira LP, Magalhães MR, Oliveira SAM, Oliveira-Neto JR, Carvalho PMG, Carvalho AAV, Fajemiroye JO, Cruz AC, Cunha LC
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2021 May 20.
PMID: 34014349.


Crotamine is a polypeptide toxin isolated from rattlesnake venom. Although several studies have been developed identifying many biological effects of isolated crotamine, none of them evaluated its acute toxicity, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities through oral administration. All in vivo experiments from this study were performed in mice. The up-and-down procedure and hippocratic screening were carried out to evaluate possible pharmacological and toxic effects. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this toxin were evaluated using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin-induced pain assays, croton oil-induced ear edema, and carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Crotamine did not cause lethality or signs of intoxication up to the maximum dose tested (10.88 mg/kg). The number of contortions was reduced significantly by 34, 57, and 74% at the oral doses of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/kg, respectively. At the dose of 0.16 mg/kg, crotamine decreases pain time-reactivity at neurogenic phase by 45% and at inflammatory phase by 60%. Also, crotamine elicited antiedematogenic activity through the attenuation of the croton oil-induced ear edema by 77%. In the carrageenan-induced pleurisy, the leukocyte, neutrophil, and mononuclear cell migration to the lesion site were reduced by 52%, 46%, and 59%, respectively. Altogether, crotamine demonstrated in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect through acute oral administration, generating an anti-migratory mechanism of action at non-toxic doses.