: The prevalence of inadequate treatments for chronic pain has necessitated the search for biological factors that influence the transition to chronicity. : Antecubital blood was drawn from those who experienced acute, noncatastrophic musculoskeletal trauma. Follow-up occurred at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with the primary outcome being Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Functional Interference scores. Eight markers were chosen for latent profile analysis: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1); C-reactive protein (CRP); tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); interleukins (ILs) 1-beta, 6, and 10; and the stress hormone cortisol. : Mean age of the 106 participants was 44.6 years and 58.5% were female. The final model indicated a three-class solution that could be adequately described by three of the eight markers: class 1 = low concentration of all markers (33.9% of the sample), class 2 = average concentration of all markers (47.7%), and class 3 = high concentration of BDNF and TGF-β1 (18.3%). BPI Pain Interference scores captured at both inception and 6-month follow-up were compared across the three groups. Mean scores were significantly higher in class 3 for the BPI Interference subscale at inception (27.0 [SD 16.4] vs. 35.8 [SD 17.3], = 0.05) and at 6-month follow-up (2.2 [SD 4.8] vs. 7.3 [SD 10.7], = 0.03) compared to those of the other two classes. : Although recovered populations are not significantly different in BDNF and TGF-β1 levels, those who experience persisting disability are more likely to have moderate to high levels in serum.