Mucositis is defined as inflammatory and/or ulcerative lesions of the oral and/or gastrointestinal tract. It occurs in approximately 40% to 50% of adults patients receiving conventional chemotherapy and up to 75% of patients receiving high dose chemotherapy as conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is a toxic side effect, which strongly impairs quality of life and leads to refractory pain, increasing risk of infection and even therapeutic modifications. Despite improvements made, the management of mucositis remains a challenge and is still not consensual. A multicentric survey of practices concerning the preventive and curative management of chemo-induced mucositis in pediatric oncology department in France was carried out using a standardized questionnaire. Results confirm heterogeneous practices and the small progress made during the last decade. This national survey and an analysis of the recent literature leads to propose guidelines for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in children receiving treatment for cancer.