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Papers of the Week

2021 May 02

Acta Neurol Belg

Demyelination as a result of an immune response in patients with COVID-19.



The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), that already appeared as a global pandemic. Presentation of the disease often includes upper respiratory symptoms like dry cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and rhinorrhea that can develop to respiratory failure, needing intubation. Furthermore, the occurrence of acute and subacute neurological manifestations such as stroke, encephalitis, headache, and seizures are frequently stated in patients with COVID-19. One of the reported neurological complications of severe COVID-19 is the demolition of the myelin sheath. Indeed, the complex immunological dysfunction provides a substrate for the development of demyelination. Nevertheless, few published reports in the literature describe demyelination in subjects with COVID-19. In this short narrative review, we discuss probable pathological mechanisms that may trigger demyelination in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and summarize the clinical evidence, confirming SARS-CoV-2 condition as a risk factor for the destruction of myelin.