Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain related to the musculoskeletal system. Patients feel incapable and show catastrophic thoughts (exaggeration of the sensations) related to painful events. This study aimed to compare catastrophic thoughts of pain between daughters of women with fibromyalgia and daughters of women without fibromyalgia, no daughter having the syndrome. It was a case-control study in which 76 women were included: 38 daughters of women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (case group), and 38 daughters of women without fibromyalgia (control group). The Brazilian versions of the Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Resilience Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. Data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Continuous variables were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test for independent samples. A significant difference was considered at p < 0.05. Regarding catastrophism, the case group had higher total catastrophism compared to the control group (p = 0.025). Daughters of patients with fibromyalgia showed higher rumination and magnification levels related to pain (p = 0.028 and p = 0.007, respectively) but did not show hopelessness. This study concludes that daughters of women with fibromyalgia are more likely to have symptoms of fibromyalgia due to their visualization of the syndrome. This indicates that emotional aspects may induce changes, and additional research on an individual basis is necessary.